ADAMUZ. Small principality on the overland route from Valencia to Molina, on the Turia River upstream from Teruel. It remains part of Valencia to this day, although isolated from it geographically.
AGOA DE MAYAS. Otherwise own in Portugal.
AHILON. Modern Name: Ayllon. Also read as Alilon. Considered to be modern Ayllon, although scholars question whether even its watch-towers could be seen from the route described for the Cid.
ALAMOS. Unknown place. Perhaps the word refers to a person's name, or is a garbled reference to the poplar groves near Riaza.
ALBARRAZIN. Full Name: Albarrazin / Santa Maria de Oriente. Modern Name: Albarracin. Arabic Name: Sahlatu Bani Razin. Capital of an Arabic emirate. The town itself dates back at least to Visigothic times. The magnificent walled town is 37 km from Teruel at an altitude of 1170 m. The antique stone houses march down the side of the mountain to the Guadalaviar.
ALBUHERA. Modern Name: La Albufera. Arabic Name: al-Buhayrah (the lake). Town on the beautiful lagoon of the same name south of Valencia where Don Ramon Berenguer built a fort to control access to Valencia.
ALCALA. Modern Name: Alcala de Henares. Arabic Name: al-Qalat (the castle). Important market town since prehistoric times located 33 km from Madrid, which eclipsed it only in the 18th Century.
ALCANIZ. Town, encircled by the Guadalope River, 100 km from Teruel, topped by a castle-convent built by the Calatrava knights in the 12th Century.
ALCANTARA. Arabic Name: al-Qantarah. Major city 63 km from Caceres, dominated by its Roman bridges. Alcantara is Arabic for arch or bridge. The Bridge of Alcantara in Toledo exited the city to the east The Bridge of Alcantara in Valencia led to a small nearby town of the same name.
ALCARIAS. Modern Name: Zorita de los Canes. Arabic Name: Racapel. Legendarily founded by the Visigoth king Leovigildo, and named Recopolis for his son Recaredo. In the 10th Century known to the Moors as Racapel.
ALCOBIELLA. Modern Name: Alcubilla del Marques. Although held by the Moors, the population of this town had accepted the protection of Alfonso, and therefore this was considered the limit of his kingdom by the poet.
ALCOCER. Modern Name: Catejon de las Armas. Believed to be present-day Catejon de las Armas. Not the better-known town of the same name north of Tarragona.
ALCUDIA. Suburb of Valencia outside of its walls, to the north across the river. It was occupied predominantly by either Christians or Moslems, depending on who was in control of the city. The modern town of this time lies a dayís ride south of Valencia.
ALEDO. Town in southeastern Spain, 52 km from Murcia and 21 km from Lorca. The Moorish castle of the Cid's day remains in remarkably good condition.
ALFAMA. Modern Name: Alhama de Aragon. Arabic Name: al-Hamma. Town, 114 km from Zaragoza at a beautiful site on the Rio Jalon. Famed for its thermal waters since Roman times.
ALFARO. Town in Basque country, 70 km from Logrono, an important agricultural center and market town since antiquity.
ALFUENTE. Modern Name: Alpuente. Arabic Name: Al-Sahla. Moorish kingdom, ruled from 1008-1092 by the Arab Banu Qasim clan. The King in the Cid's time was Yanah or Nizam al-Dawla (1049-1092).
ALGEZIRA. Modern Name: Algeciras. Arabic Name: al-Jazirah al-Khadra (Green Island). Moorish kingdom at the southern tip of Spain, 123 km from Cadiz. It is set on an excellent bay adjacent to Gibralter, and has been an important port for centuries.
ALGEZIRA DE XUCAR. Modern Name: Alcala del Jucar. Arabic Name: al-Jazirah al-Khukar. Important Muslim town south of Valencia.
ALMAZAN. Arabic Name: al-Maydan (the field). Town, 31 km from Soria province, location of pilgrimage church St. Mary of Almazan. The town, on the Duero, retains its medieval character today, with Arabic walls and the romanesque / mozarabic church of San Miguel.
ALMENAR. Modern Name: Almenara. Arabic Name: al-Manarah (The Minaret). Moorish castle and lookout tower guarding the northern frontier of Monviedro. The historical Cid did not occupy the place until 1098, four years after the fall of Valencia. The site was originally a Roman winter camp with a Temple of Venus.
AMAJA. Modern Name: Santa Cruz de Moya. Small town on the pass on the overland route from Campo-Robres to Adamuz, linking the valleys of the Ojos de Moya and Turia rivers.
ANAYA. Housing district in Valencia.
ANQUITA. Modern Name: Anguita. Place in the mountains between the Henares and Jalon.
ANSARERA. Unknown place just south of Medinaceli. The name seems to have its root in the word for geese, e.g. a place for keeping geese.
ARBUXUELO. Valley that spreads below Medinaceli south of the river Salon and leading to the plain of Torancio.
ARLANZON. Modern Name: Arlancon. Town upon the Glera (modern Rio Arlanzon), 22 km from Burgos. The city is first mentioned in 921 and was probably repopulated by Christian settlers in the late 9th Century.
ARRUECO. Location between Roa and Corpes. Possibly Aranda de Duero, a major crossroad 71 km south of Burgos.
ASPA. Town in modern day Catalonia, 13 km south of Lleida.
ASTORGA. Major city 47 km from Leon, an important stopover on the medieval Camino de Santiago. The city itself has walls and building dating back to Roman times, and numerous medieval churches and houses.
ATAPUERCA. Town, Burgos province, site of the battle fought in 1054 between the brothers Ferrando and Garcia. Garcia was killed, allowing Ferrando to regain territories in Navarre he had conceded to his brother 17 years earlier..
ATIENZA. Ancient city 82 km from Guadalajara, on a commanding hill over the old Roman road between Tiermes and Osma. The castle, dating back to pre-Roman times, is at 1250 km altitude.
AVILA. Ancient and major city, 62 km from Segovia, surrounded to this day by immense 11th century walls, 2.5 km long, piereced by two major gates, the Alcazr and San Vicente. The cathedral was begun in 1107.
AXERA. An Islamic pilgrimage site near Valencia.
AZA. Walled town in southeastern Burgos, on a hill at 906 m altitude, on the Riaza 15 km above the Duero. A town on a subsidiay trade route since Roman times, it was first reconquered in 912.
BACER. Modern Name: Besori. Camping place of the Almoravid army, within sight of the walls of Valencia. Perhaps the modern height called Puntal de Besori, 361 m high, 16 km southwest of the city.
BADAJOZ. Arabic Name: Badalyaws. Major city, 92 km from Caceres, capital of a Moorish emirate on the Guadiana, the modern border between Spain and Portugal. The ruins of the Moorish castle are still visible above the city today.
BALSADRON. Moorish town in Catalonia.
BARAHONA. The town, at 1137 meters altitude, is near the watershed of the Duero, the Ebro and the Tagus, on the old Roman road between Berlanga and Medinaceli. Its castle dates to pre-Roman times, and was the site of a major battle of the reconquest in 975.
BARCELONA. Major coastal port and city of northeastern Spain, founded by the Carthaginians, the once and future capital of Catalonia.
BEJA. Arabic Name: Baja az Zayt. Ancient town in modern-day Alentejo province, Portugal. Part of the emirate of Badajoz in the Cid's time.
BENAECAB. Arabic Name: Banu Aqab. Arabic for Sons of the Eagle; the name of a clan in possession of a Moorish castle north of Valencia.
BERLANGA. The town, on a tributary of the Rio Escalote dates back to the Iron Age. It was fortified by the Arabs in the tenth century and formed part of the defence line against the Christians along the Duero, which included Gormaz, San Esteban de Gormaz and Osma.
BERROCAL. Town between Parra and Val de Endrinas, south of Medina Celi. Otherwise unidentifiable.
BERVIESCA. Modern Name: Briviesca. Town 43 km northeast of Burgos.
BIVAR. Modern Name: Vivar del Cid. Town on the Ubierna 9 km north of Burgos where Rodrigo, the Cid, had his ancestral seat.
BOBIERCA. Modern Name: Bubierca. Town between Alfama, and Teca.
BONILLA. Town between Chiva and Requena. A castle still stands here.
BORRIANA. Modern Name: Burriana. Arabic Name: Buriana. Town 50 km north of Valencia at the mouth of the Rio Seco. The historical Cid occupied Burriana in 1091.
BRIHUEGA. Town, 35 km from Guadalajara, on the Alcarria plateau, site of a dismantled castle in the Cidís time. Alfonso refurbished the castle with the permission of the King of Toledo.
BUENAR. Unidentifiable town.
BURGOS. Arabic Name: Burgus. Burgos was recolonized by Diego Porcelos in the ninth century, and made capital of Castille by Fernan Gonzalez in 951.
CABEZON. Modern Name: Cabezon de la Sal. Town on the Pisuerga 15 km north of Valladolid. The Moorish castle here was the site of the cruel tragedy of Don Pedro.
CABRA. Arabic Name: Qabra. Town, 75 km from Cordoba, in the mountains of the same name. The walls and castle date back to Moorish times, with later Christian renovations. The church of San Juan Bautista dates to the 7th Century and is the oldest in Andalusia.
CALAHORRA. Arabic Name: Qalat al-Hajar (Stone Castle). Town, 49 km from Logrono, a major market center in the center of astonishingly productive farmland since Roman times, when it was known as Calagurria. An episcopal seat since the 5th Century. The cathedral dates from the 12th Century.
CALAMOCHA. Town, 71 km from Teruel. The town goes back to pre-Roman times, and a single-arch Roman bridge here would have been known to the Cid. One of the coldest towns in Spain.
CALATAYUD. Arabic Name: Qalat al-Ayyub (Ayyub's Castle). Town, 86 km from Zaragoza. The Moor Ayub built a castle here, dominating a pass on the major road between Zaragoza and Merida. A town grew up around the castle, the reddish color of the houses matching the hillside in which they were built.
CAMPO. Modern Name: Santa Maria del Campo. Possibly identifable with this town in Burgos province, on the Rio Arlanza.
CAMPO-ROBRES. Town between Requena and Villa Taxo.
CARCHAYRA. Town near Valencia.
CARDONA. Town, 75 km northwest of Barcelona. The old collegiate church here was founded in 1040 and active in the Cid's day.
CARRION. Town on the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compestela, 39 km from Palencia, in the middle of a fertile plain. The San Zoilo monastery here dates back to the Cid's time, and Santiago and Santa Maria churches features 12th Century Romanesque facades.
CARTAXES. Unidentified place in northeastern Spain.
CASTREJON. Full Name: Castrejon de Henares. Modern Name: Castejon de Henares. Town on the Henares. The raid here marked the beginning of what scholars classify as the Cidís campaign along the Henares.
CASTRO. Town, near Valencia.
CASTRO NUNO. Modern Name: Castronuno. Fortified town on the south bank of the Duero, 37 km northwest of Medina del Campo.
CEBOLLA. Town, near Valencia. Evidently not the castle 57 km west of Toledo.
CELFA DE CANAL. Modern Name: Cella. Arabic Name: Celfa. Town 12 km northwest of Teruel. The poet has the Cid making an impossible 150-km one-night march from Sagunto (Monteviedro) to Cella.
CETINA. Town south of the Jalon 35 km southwest of Calatayud. It is dominated by a huge Aragonese palatial castle, built on earlier foundations in the 13th and 14th Centuries.
CHIVA. Town between Campo del Quarto and Bonilla.
CIGUENZA. Modern Name: Siguenza. Ancient town, 74 km from Guadalajara, built in terrances upon a hilltop and topped by a castle, now a parador. The arcaded Plaza Mayor, on the north of the Cathedral, leads off into side streets with medieval Romanesque buildings and palaces.
CIUDAD RODRIGO. Town near the Portugese border, 86 km from Salamanca. The castle walls, 2.2 km long, 13 m high, and 2 m thick, on Roman foundations, were upgraded by the Spanish reconquerer Count Rodrigo Gonzalez in the 12th Century and renovated again in 1710.
COIMBRA. Arabic Name: Qulumriyyah. Major city in central Portugal, dating back to Roman times, on a hillside above the Mondego river. The 12th Century Almedina Gate is one of the last vestiges of the medieval town wall.
COLCHA. Unidentifiable place on a route from Adamuz to Molina. There is no modern place with that name in that area.
CONSUEGRA. Today the emblemic town of La Mancha, with its 12th Century Hospitaller's castle and array of windmills on the hill overlooking the town. Site of the battle with the Almoravides on August 15, 1097 at which Alfonso was defeated and the Cid's son killed.
CORDOVA. Modern Name: Cordoba. Arabic Name: Qurtuba. Capital of the Cordoba calphate, the greatest city in Europe in the tenth Century. In the Cid's day it was conquered by Seville in 1070 but continued to be a center of science and culture.
CORPES. The location of the oak-wood of Corpes has been the subject of endless scholarly controversy. Local tradition (and a road marker) place it at El Paramo, near Castillejo de Robledo.
CUBIELLA. Modern Name: Alcubilla del Marques. The hill made a perfect sentry post along the Duero between Burgos de Osma and San Esteban de Gormaz.
CUENCA. Arabic Name: Qunkah. Town, 165 km from Madrid, built on an impregnable plateau above the Rio Jucar. Famous for its 14th Century casas colgadas, hanging houses, medieval skyscrapers built above the cliffs..
CULLERA. Town on a small harbor at the mouth of the Riola, 55 km north of Denia. The castle ruins are now dwarfed by the adjacent hermitage.
DAROCA. Town still retaining its medieval appearance, surrounded by a 3-km red rock 13th Century battlement with over a hundred towers. It was a major crafts center in the middle ages.
DENIA. Arabic Name: Daniyyah. Coastal town 100 km south of Valencia, founded as Dianium in ancient times by Greek Phoceans from Asia Minor. The 16th Century Torre de Geno, a defence against the Barbary pirates, looks over the harbor of what is now a seaside resort.
DERONCADA. Town near Valencia, otherwise unidentifiable.
DOROCA. Modern Name: Daroca. Town 25 km north of Calamocha on the Rio Jiloca. Muslim in the Cid's time, it was reconquered by Alfonso the Battler in 1142.
DUENAS. Town 17 km from Palencia. The town preserves Roman, Gothic, and Renaissance aspects.
ESTRADA. Otherwise unidentifable site of a Castle on the river Segre east of Tamarit.
EVORA. Arabic Name: Yaburah. Major town in southern Portugal. A walled city since Roman times, it was conquered by the Muslims in 715. It retains its Moorish character to the present, with white washed houses in narrow alleys with overhanging arches and gardens.
FARIZA. Modern Name: Ariza. Town on the Jalon.
FARO. Unidentifiable Castle.
FIGERUELA. Unknown location, but Navapalos and Fresno de Caracena are under 6 km apart, and it would seem to be near there.
FITA. Modern Name: Hita. Town 28 km north of Guadalajara, on the road to Siguenza. The town goes back to Roman times, and has a castle at the top of the conical hill on which it is built. With an antique air, Hita holds a medieval festival on the first weekend of July.
FRESNO. Modern Name: Fresno de Caracena. Crossroads south of the crossing of the Duero at Navapalos.
FROMESTA. Modern Name: Fromista. Town on the pilgrimage road to Santiago de Compestela, 32 km from Palencia. It provided four hospices and the Monastery of San Martin to the pilgrims. The church, built in 1066, has been called the climax of Romanesque archtiecture in Castille.
FRONCHALES. Modern Name: Bronchales. Mountain town, 26 km northwest of Albarracin.
GAMNE. Town in Portugal, which the chronicler could not identify with any town of his time.
GANA. Modern Name: Gauna. Town 12 km east of Vitoria.
GORMAZ. Gormaz was the greatest fortification in tenth century Europe. The Moorish castle was a major base for Muslim armies defending the Duero against Christian encroachments and used for raids north into Christian territory.
GRANADA. Arabic Name: Gharnata. Moorish kingdom, the last territory surrendered by the Muslims in Spain. Ruled from 1014 to 1090 by the Banu Ziri, Berbers of the Sanhaja tribal confederation.
GRANON. Town ruled by Count Don Garcia de Cabra, 25 km west of Najera.
GRIZA. Modern Name: Riaza. Unknown place, unless it refers to Riaza. Riaza is a mountain town 72 km from Segovia at an altitude of 1243 m. It has a lovely Plaza Mayor, a 16th Century church, and is today a winter sports center.
GUADALAJARA. Arabic Name: Wadi al-Hijarah (stony river). Ancient major town, 126 km from Toledo, historically reconquered by Alvar Fanez Minaya in 1085.
GUYERA. Otherwise unidentifiable castle.
HUERTA. Modern Name: Huerta de Vero. Possibly Huerta de Vero, 30 km northwest of Monzon
HUESA. Full Name: Huesa del Comun. Remote castle 108 km north of Teruel and 60 km east of Daroca. The fort, reminiscent of Penaflor, is practically inaccessible and dominates the town below. Huesca here is believed to be a scribal error.
HUESCA. Arabic Name: Wasqa. Moorish town 69 km from Zaragoza. Although going back to Roman times, little dating to the Cid's day is still visible, except the layout of the old streets and neighborhoods.
IRIA. Seat of Portuguese Bishopric; site of the Miracle of Fatima in the 20th Century.
JUBALLA. Modern Name: Puig. Arabic Name: al-Jubail?. This strategic location, on the coast road leading to Sagunto, 15 km north of Valencia, was the site of the decisive Battle of Puig in 1237. King James victory there led to the final reconquest of Valencia.
KING'S FORD. Modern Name: Vadorrey. Crossing of the Duero, at modern-day La Estacion.
LAMEGO. Town, North Portugal. A 12th Century castle overlooks the mainly 18th Century town. The first King of Portugal was declared here in 1143.
LANTADA. Modern Name: Lantadilla. Town near unto Carrion.
LAREDO. Town in Cantabria, 50 km from Santander. The Old Town and 12th Century Church of Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion preserve some of the atmosphere, if not the monuments, of the Cid's time.
LEON. Arabic Name: Liyyun. Spanish Kingdom and its capital city. Leon's name derives from the garrison of the Roman Legion VII Gemina, established here in AD 68. The town is the cradle of Romanesque art, with some churches in the city dating back to the Cid's time.
LIEBANA. Town near Carrion.
LINQUELLA. Modern Name: Languilla. Seat of Muno Gustioz, 5 km northwest of Ayllon.
LIRIA. Modern Name: Lliria. Arabic Name: Lyria. Town 24 km northwest of Valencia. It retains its Muslim character today with the l'alcassaba fortress (currently housing the archaeological museum), the old medina with the Arab baths.
LOGRONO. Principle town of the Basque La Rioja province. The modern down preserves some aspects of the Cid's time in the old city walls and the 12th Century church of Santa Maria de Palacio. The town is famed for its wines and restaurants.
LORCA. Arabic Name: Lawraqah. Town, 63 km from Murcia. A key town between the Levant and Andalucia, it has a vast number of palaces and churches, but mainly from the 16th Century and later. Little remains of the Muslim town of the Cid's day.
LORVAM. Monastery outside of Coimbra, Portugal.
LUNA. Modern Name: Los Barrios de Luna. Town 80 km south of Oviedo, on the Rio Luna, at the dam of the same name. The reservoir was filled in 1958. Nothing remains of the famous castle.
LUZON. Town 37 km east of Siguenza, on the road to Molina de Aragon.
MARTOS. Town 23 km west of Jaen. The ancient castle here was refortified by Abu ibn-al-Ishbiliya in the ninth century. It was reconquered in 1225,
MAURELET. Unidentifiable town near Tortosa.
MEDINA CELI. Arabic Name: Madinatu Salim. Ancient town 75 km from Soria, in Moorish hands in the Cid's time. It is so much the focus of the Poem of the Cid that many scholars believe the author must have been from there.
MEDINA DE RIO-SECO. Town 76 km from Valladolid, founded in Roman times. A picturesque town largely neglected by tourists. The Calle de la Rua, a narrow street fronted by porched houses, projects a real air of antiquity. The main monuments were built after the 15th Century.
MEDINA DEL CAMPO. Town, 52 km from Valladolid. It was the commercial center of Spain in the 16th Century, and most buildings date from that period. The tremendous castle of Mota dates from antiquity, but was greatly expanded in the 13th and 16th Centuries.
MERIDA. Arabic Name: Maridah. Town 61 km from Badajoz, founded in 25 BC as Augusta Emerita, capital of Rome's Lusitania province. The town retains Roman elements integrated with later constructions, including the Moorish Alcazaba of the Cid's time.
MOLINA. Modern Name: Molina de Aragon. Arabic Name: Tarik. Town 195 km northeast of modern Madrid, known to the Moors as Tarik, and ruled in the Cid's time by the Moor Abencano.
MONTALBAN. Town on the Rio Martin 83 km north of Teruel. The castle dates back to antiquity
MONTE-REAL. Modern Name: Monreal del Campo. Town on the Jaloca, 55 km north of Teruel. Scholars consider the raids against towns along the Rio Jaloca as the Cidís third campaign. These cities were historically under the protection of the Moorish King of Saragossa.
MONTEFORTE. Unidentifiable place.
MONTEMAYOR. Modern Name: Montemayor de Pililla. Perhaps this location 20 km northwest of Cuellar.
MONTEMOR. Modern Name: Montemor-o-Velho. Portugese town fortified by Benalfagi, who was the Lord of many lands in Estremadura.
MONVIEDRO. Modern Name: Sagunto. Arabic Name: Morbiter. Also Murviedro, called Sagunto, historically not occupied by the Cid until 1098, four years after Valencia. Saguntum was an ancient Roman seaport, but the bay silted in, leaving the modern town miles from the sea.
MONZON. Fortified town, 72 km from Huesca, in the angle of the Cinca and Sosa rivers. The Castillo features Visigothic walls, a 10th Century Moorish tower, and later 12th and 17th Century additions.
MONZON DE CAMPOS. Town 13 km north of Palencia. The castle was first built in the middle 9th Century by Ansur Fernandez, father-in-law of Sancho I. The three assassins of Garcia II took refuge here and were burned alive in front of its walls after their capture.
MORIELLA. Modern Name: Muriella. Town, 106 km from Castellon, considered an architectural jewel of Valencia province. The castle dates back to pre-Roman times, and was improved by the Romans and Moors. It was reconquered in 1235.
MOYA. An area that takes up one fifth of the province of Cuenca and includes 36 towns.
MURCIA. Moorish capital founded by Aderrahman II in 831, called the Orchard of Europe after Arab irrigation techniques using the Segura river made the desert bloom. The city walls, built by the Moors, evoke the Cid's time.
NAJARA. Modern Name: Najera. Arabic Name: Najirah. Also Nagera, Naxara. Town, 26 km from Logrono, seat of the Kings of Navarre, site of the Santa Maria la Real, the Royal Monastery. The Romanesque 12th Century cloister, royal pantheon, and sepulchre of Dona Blanca evoke the Cid's time.
NAVAS DE PALOS. Modern Name: Navapalos. Town on the south bank of a crossing of the Duero 12 km south of El Burgo de Osma.
OLIAS. Modern Name: Olias del Rey. Town, 10 km north of Toledo.
ONA. Location of a major monastery, 68 km from Burgos, set in mountainous pine forests. It reached its apogee in the Cid's time, when the court of Castile was here. The town features an interesting old multi-level plaza and the 11th Century San Salvador church
ONDA. Town, between Huerta and Buenar, 21 km from Castellon. The town dates to pre-Roman times, and there is a signficant castle here largely ignored by medieval historians.
ORBANEJA. Modern Name: Orbaneja del Castillo. Town in northeast Burgos province on the canyon of the Ebro River, between Burgos and Santander.
ORCEJON. Modern Name: Ordejon de Abajo. Towns 35 km northwest of Burgos.
ORIHUELA. Arabic Name: Uryula. Town 58 km from Alicante, irrigated by the Arabs and surrounded by citrus groves. It was not definitively reconquered until 1304. Most monuments are later, but the town features a Museum of the Reconquest, with Moorish and Christian artifacts.
OSMA. Arabic Name: Waxsima. Osma was part of a line of watchtowers and minor fortifications. In the Cid's time it had been under a Christian lord since 1011.
OVIEDO. City on the river Deva, 119 km from and capital of Leon and Asturias. The main cathedral was San Salvador in the Cid's day. The palace of Santa Maria de Naranco, built by Ramiro I in the 9th Century, is the jewel of Spanish pre-Romanesque architecture..
PALENCIA. Town, 43 km from Valladolid. A town founded by the Basques in pre-Roman times and later a major Roman city. There are numerous Romanesque buildings dating to the Cid's time, including the Church of San Miguel, in which he and Ximena were married.
PAMPLIEGO. Modern Name: Pampliega. Town colonized by Gomez Fernandez, on the south bank of the Arlanzon, 28 km southwest of Burgos.
PAMPLONA. Modern Name: Iruna. Arabic Name: Banbalunah. Major town, capital of Navarre, 87 km from San Sebastian. The medieval old town is the site of the famous running of the bulls. Charlemagne's forces destroyed the walls the Moors had thrown up, leaving only the various towers to posterity.
PARRA. Town southeast of Medinaceli between Valdespino and Berrocal.
PAZLUENGAS. Modern Name: Pazuengas. Castle in the Sierra de San Lorenzo, 18 km south of Santo Domingo de la Calzada.
PENA CADIELLA. Modern Name: Benicadell. Fortress in the mountain range topped by the 1104 m high peak Benicadell.
PENAFIEL. Town 56 km from Valladolid. At the strategic confluence of three valleys, it is dominated by a marvelous 14th Century castle, and features and evocative Juderia in the old town. The churches date from the 14th Century but show Moorish influences.
PORCA. Town in modern northern Portugal.
QUINTANA. Unidentifiable place on a route from Adamuz to Molina. There is no modern place with that name in that area.
REMOLIN. Modern Name: Remolinos. Town on the north bank of the Ebro, 35 km northwest of Zaragoza.
REQUENA. Major crossroads in the mountains 70 km west of Valencia where the routes from Valencia, Villar, Teruel, Albacete, and Almansa converge. Today a wine center, it features medieval houses and walls, Gothic churches, and many bodegas.
RIOJA. Modern Name: La Rioja. Former kingdom, now autonomous community of Spain, with the capital at Logrono. Area 5,034 square kilometers. Estimated population in AD 1100, 60 thousand and population density 11.9 per square km. Today famed for its red wines.
ROA. Modern Name: Roa de Duero. Ancient town 84 km from Burgos, on the old Roman road between Clunia and Astorga, in the Cid's time leading from Penafiel to Arrueco.
RUEDA. Arabic Name: Ruta. Ancient town built along the Camino Real, 48 m from Valladolid, also called Tierra de Medina.
RUZAF. Modern Name: Russafa. Suburb of Valencia, just south of the walled city, named after a luxurious palace built here by the local ruler Abdallah al-Balansi.
SAHAGUN. Site of the Royal Benedictine Monastery of the Cid's time (today in ruins), 63 km from Leon. The town retains an atmosphere of antiquity.
SALAMANCA. Arabic Name: Shalamanqah. Major medieval university city, 62 km from Zamora. Immense building works of the 16th Century and later erased much of the city of the Cid's time. The Old Cathedral was completed in the 12th Century, and the church of San Martin dates to the same period.
SALDANA. Town, 65 km from Palencia. Dating back to pre-Roman and Roman times. The ruined castle here was the site of Dona Urraca's death in early 1101.
SALVACANETE. Ancient town in the Moya region 86 km east of Cuenca.
SAN CHRISTOVAL DE YBEAS. Modern Name: Ibeas de Juarros. Monastery, a 'league from San Pedro de Cardena'. Perhaps at Ibeas de Juarros, 6 km to the northeast.
SAN DOMINGO DE LA CALZADA. Modern Name: Santo Domingo de la Calzada. Town on the Rio Oja on the road between Burgos and Najera. A parador is built into the old buildings there.
SAN ESTEVAN DE GORMAZ. Full Name: Santesteban. Modern Name: San Esteban de Gormaz. The small castle and town controlled the medieval bridge that crosses the Duero here. It was part of the frontier fortifications that changed hands repeatedly between Christian and Moor in the tenth and eleventh centuries.
SAN PEDRO DE CARDENA. Monastery where the Cidís wife Dona Ximena and his daughters, lived from his exile until his conquest of Valencia. Later, the place where he was buried after the evacuation of Valencia two years after his death.
SAN SERVANS. Modern Name: San Servando. Church across the Tagus from Toledo. The castle of San Servando was above the Bridge of Alcantara. Alfonso rebuilt it as a monastery after his conquest of Toledo and donated it to the Pope in 1088.
SANTA CRUZ. Town, otherwise unidentificable, evidently north of Valencia.
SANTA MARIA. Otherwise unidentifiable town from which the attack on Coimbra in Portugal was launched.
SANTAREM. Ancient city, northeast of Lisbon, on the north shore of the Tapajos River in Portugal.
SANTIAGO. Field before the walls of Zamora, on the banks of the Rio Duero. Possibly the location of the church Santiago del Burgo indicates that the field was below the jog in the walls on the southeast corner of the city.
SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA. Arabic Name: Shant Yaqub. The greatest pilgrimage site in Spain, the location of the relics of the Apostle Santiago (Saint James), patron saint of the Spanish reconquest.
SANTILLANA. Modern Name: Santillana del Mar. Town, 25 km from Santander. It was an important pilgrimage site and the location of a powerful collegiate church in the 11th Century.
SEA. Modern Name: Seia. Castle in Portugal, on the west slope of the Serra de Estrella. It received its first Christian municipal charter in 1136, incorporating six small adjacent villages.
SEGORBE. Town, 68 km from Castellon, an episcopal seat since Visigothic times.
SEGOVIA. Arabic Name: Shiqubiyyah. Ancient Roman city, 111 km from Valladolid, dominated in the Cid's day by the 728-m long Roman aqueduct which is still in use a millenium later. Most of the visible Alcazar and Old Town date to the 12th to 15th centuries.
SERA. Modern Name: Serra. Ancient mountain town with an important Moorish castle at 330 m altitude 27 km north of Valencia and west of Sagunto.
SERRAZIN. Modern Name: Sarracin. Town, 9 km south of Burgos.
SEVILLE. Arabic Name: Isbiliya. Major city of Moorish Andalucia.
SIETE AGUAS. Castle named the Seven Waters, which was nine leagues from Valencia.
SORIA. Moorish town, the current capital of Soria province, 106 km from Logrono. Although the walls and castles of Soria evoke the Cid's time, they were in fact built after his death.
TAMARIT. Modern Name: Tamarite de Litera. Ancient town in the modern province of Huesca. It was ruled by Muslims in the Cid's lifetime.
TARES. Town near Monviedro. Modern Tarrasa/Terrassa, 33 km from Barcelona, seems much too far away to be identified with it.
TEBAR. Arabic Name: Tevar. Pine-forest, probably located near Monroyo, south of Alcaniz on the road to Morella.
TECA. Modern Name: Ateca. Muslim town of the Banu-Timlat, with a castle from at least 974. The nearby Torrecid tower is dated to the Cid's time, and has indeed yielded 11th Century pottery.
TERRER. Teruel in the manuscript, but Terrer is the name of the ancient town in the correct location.
TERUEL. Arabic Name: Tirwal. Although references to Teruel appear in Muslim chronicles of the tenth century, it only became a significant city after its reconquest in 1171. The town is 145 km inland from Valencia.
TIEDRA. Castle 54 km northeast of Tordesillas.
TOALBA. Modern Name: Torralba de los Sisones. Small town 77 km north of Teruel at 1041 m altitude. The Church of San Pedro and curate's house are built on the remains of the Moorish castle of the Cid's day.
TOLEDO. Arabic Name: Tulaydulah. The greatest Moorish city of central Spain, 70 km south of Madrid, in a loop of the Tajo River, conquered by the Christians from the Moors during the Cidís time.
TOLOSA. Town 26 km from San Sebastian, briefly the capital of Guipazcoa in the 19th Century. The oldest monuments in town today date only from the 16th Century.
TORANCIO. Also Campo Taranz. Probably what is now a flat shrubland between Luzon and Medinaceli; in the Cid's time, covered with thickets of trees.
TORO. City on the Duero, 33 km from Zamora province, ruled by Infanta Dona Elvira. Its collegiate church dates to 1160 and its several brick Mudejar churches evoke the Cid's day, but little remains of the 10th Century town.
TORRALVA. Modern Name: Torralba. Town near Alcala, known in modern times for the discovery of a Middle Paleolithic site that seemed to show slaughter of mastodons by Homo erectus.
TORTOSA. Arabic Name: Turdusah. Ancient coastal town, 86 km from Tarragona, ruled by the Moors in the Cid's day. The Zuda castle here was built after 714 to protect the only bridge across the Ebro along the coast. The Muslims cultivated the area and made it a major agricultural center.
TUDELA. Name of the northwestern gate of the Cidís Valencia. Also the name of a town 94 km from Pamplona, location of a 12th Century cathedral.
UBEDA. Arabic Name: Medinat-Ubbadat Al-Arab. Major Moorish city, 56 km from Jaen. The town began as the small Roman suburb of Salaria-Ubeda. The extensive modern city was built by Abderraman II (822-852), and was an enormous construction of 35,000 hectares enclosed in stout walls.
URGEL. Modern Name: La Seu d'Urgell. Christian area between the Pyrenees and the Muslim kingdom of Lleida. It was ruled in the Cid's lifetime by the Counts of Urgel. The Bishop of Urgel is still one of the two nominal rulers of Andorra.
VALDESPINO. Town leading to Parra.
VALENCIA. Arabic Name: Banlansiya. Major coastal city and province of Spain, conquered by the Cid, but lost again to the Moors after his death. In the Cidís time it had a population of over 15,000 and one of the most remarkable fortification walls in Spain.
VALLADOLID. Valladolid became favored by Spanish royalty after the 12th Century, with a major university founded here in the 15th Century. In 1492 it was made the capital of Castille, replacing Burgos in that role.
VILFORADO. Modern Name: Ribaforada. Town, part of the Moorish dominions of Zaragoza.
VILLA NUEVA. Suburb of Valencia, across the river to the north of the walled city, from which the Great Garden extended to the sea.
VILLA TAXO. Small village, in the valley of the Ojos de Moya.
VILLALPANDO. Town near Zamora.
VISEU. Town, in central Portugal on the Pavia. Center of a wooded agricultural area, the Old Town, with narrow alleys and old palaces emblazoned with stone coats of arms, is a modern tourist attraction.
VULPEGERA. Modern Name: Golpejera. Field of battle for the second fight between Sancho and Alfonso, beside the river Carrion.
XAROSA. Modern Name: Jarosa. Camping place of the Cidís army outside of the walls of Valencia.
XATIVA. Modern Name: Jativa. Town, 56 km from Valencia, held in the Cid's day by Abenmazot. The castle has vestiges of every period from the pre-Roman to the 19th Century. The oldest church, Sant Feliu, dates to the 13th Century. Numerous old houses and fountains.
XERICA. Modern Name: Jerica. Town on the road 43 km northwest of Sagunto.
YBIA. Modern Name: Ibeas de Juarros. Possibly Ibeas de Juarros, 13 km east of Burgos.
ZAMORA. Arabic Name: Sammura. City which had lain desolate since destroyed by Almanzor, repopulated by the King of Leon.
ZARAGOZA. Arabic Name: Saraqusta. Major city controlling the Ebro valley, ruled in the Cidís time by the Banu Hud clan. Founded by the Romans as Caesar Augusta. The Grand Mosque (now La Seo del Salvador) and Palacio de la Aljaferia give an idea of the magnificence of the Muslim capital.
ZEBREROS. Possibly Cebreros, 43 km southeast of Avila. Or, going strictly by the text, an unidentifiable town in Galicia.
ZORITA. Town 25 km northwest of Murella.