Index - Christian


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ADOLFO. The father of Vellido Dolfos. Adolfo slew Don Nuno. Adolfo’s father was Laino, another traitor, who killed his gossip and threw him into the river.

ALAT ALMARIAN. Arabic Name: Caet Al Matran. Mozarabic bishop of Valencia at the time it was seized by the Cid on 16 June 1094. He continued until replaced by Hieronymo in 1096.

ALFONSO. Full Name: King Don Alfonso. Modern Name: Alfonso VI. 1040 - 1 July 1109, King of Leon from 1065, and Castille and Leon from 1072.

ALVAR ALVAREZ. A nephew of the Cid. The name is documented in historical sources.

ALVAR BERMUDEZ. Christian knight who colonized Osma.

ALVAR DIEZ. Christian Lord of Oca and brother-in-law of Garcia Ordonez.

ALVAR FANEZ. Full Name: Alvar Fanez Minaya. Cousin (or nephew) of the Cid, his right hand man and most trusted knight. Minaya or Mianaya is actually a title, consisting of the Spanish mi and the Basque anai (my brother).

ALVAR SALVADORES. One of the Cid’s vassals. The name is documented in historical sources.

ANRRICH. Full Name: Count Don Anrrich. The historical Henry, grandson of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy; and nephew of Queen Constance, the wife of Alfonso. In 1095 he married Alfonso’s bastard daughter Teresa and was named governor of Portugal.

ANTOLIN SANCHEZ. Count of Soria.

ARIAS GONZALO. Full Name: Don Arias Gonzalo. Foster-father of Dona Urraca, who lost three sons to Don Diego Ordonez in the affair of the fall of Zamora. There is no historical records connecting him with Urraca or the rebellion.

BENITO PEREZ. Seneschal (official in charge of administration of the royal household) of King Alfonso.

BENITO SANCHEZ. Knight of the Cid.

BERMUDO. Modern Name: Bermudo III. King of Leon, slain in the year 1037 by King Ferrando at Tamaron. Bermudo was the brother of Dona Sancha, Ferrando’s wife.

BERNAL DIANEZ DE OCAMPO. Hidalgo of Santiago.

BERNALTE DE TAMARIS. Full Name: Don Bernalte de Tamaris. Noble prisoner taken by the Cid in his battle against the Catalonians.

CABRIAN. Full Name: Don Cabrian. Bishop of Leon.

DIEGO ARIAS. Son of Don Arias Gonzalo.

DIEGO DE OSMA. Full Name: Don Diego de Osma. Don who carried the banner of King Sanchez.

DIEGO GONZALEZ. One of the Infantes of Carrion, the sons of Count Don Gonzalo, who married the daughters of the Cid. Diego Gonzalez was a grandson and nephew of the Counts of Carrion (the brothers had no historical basis for being called Infantes or Princes).

DIEGO HURTADO. Full Name: Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. King Charles V’s (not Philip II's) ambassador to the Court of Rome 1547-1554.

DIEGO LAYNEZ. Modern Name: Diego Flainez. Died 1058 or 1060. Scion of the Flain clan; father of the Cid, husband of Dona Teresa Rodriguez. Probably a leader of an uprising of certain Leonoese nobles against King Ferrando in 1060, resulting in loss of his estates and possibly his death.

DIEGO ORDONEZ. The son of Count Don Bermudo, who was the son of the Infante Don Ordonez of Leon. There is no historical record of him.

DIEGO PEREZ. One of the best men of Castille.

DIEGO RODRIGUEZ. 1076-1097. The son of the Cid, slain at Consuegra in a battle between King Don Alfonso with King Abenalfange of Denia.

DIEGO SANCHEZ. Knight of Arlanza.

DIEGO TELLEZ. A historical person of that name was Governor of Sepulveda in 1086. There is no documentary evidence tying him with Alvar Fanez or San Esteban de Gormaz.

DON ORDONO. Father of Don Diego Ordonez, and a man of royal lineage and great hardihood.

ELVIRA. Full Name: Dona Elvira. Modern Name: Cristina Rodriguez Diaz de Vivar. Born 1075. Daughter of the Cid. In historical records called Cristina. In 1098 she married Ramiro, Prince of Navarre, Lord of Monzon, a grandson of King Garcia de Atapuerca.

ELVIRA NUNEZ. Wife of Layn Calvo; daughter of Nuno.

ESTIANO. A Bishop, a pilgrim from the land of Greece on pilgrimage to Santiago.

FAFES SARRACEM DE LANHOSO. Full Name: Count Don Fafes Sarracem de Lanhoso. A right good knight from whom the Godinhos were descended.

FELEZ FERRUZ. Knight of the Cid.

FELEZ MUNOZ. Nephew of the Cid, one of his principle knights and supporters. There is no historical record of him.

FERRAN ALFONSO. A squire, a young man, one whom the Cid had brought up and in whom he had great trust. He was an hidalgo, entrusted with putting the ivory seat which the Cid had won in Valencia, and place it in the Palace of Toledo.

FERRAN ANSURES. Full Name: Don Ferran Ansures. Brother of Don Pero Ansures and Don Gonzalo Ansures.

FERRANDO. Full Name: King Don Ferrando. Modern Name: Fernando I. (1016 or 1018 - 27 December 27 1065). Ferrando succeeded to the Castillian throne in 1035. His queen was Dona Sancha of Leon. Like Lear, he split his kingdom on his death between his children.

FERRANDO DIAZ. Modern Name: Fernando Diaz. Brother of the Cid and father of Martin Antolinez.

FERRANDO GONZALEZ. Modern Name: Fernando Gonzalez. With Diego Gonzalez, one of the Infantes of Carrion, the sons of Count Don Gonzalo, the treacherous first husbands of the daughters of the Cid.

FORTUN SANCHEZ. Son-in-law of King Don Garcia of Navarre.

FRUELA. Full Name: Count Don Fruela. Modern Name: Froila Diaz. Count of Asturias, brother of Ximena, commander of one wing of Don Alfonso’s army.

GALIN GARCIA. A knight of Aragon, one of the Cid’s lieutenants. Lord of Estada, a vassal of King Pedro of Aragon.

GARCIA. Full Name: Count Garcia. (1042 - 22 March 1090). King of Galicia 1065-1071. Youngest son of King Ferrando. He was removed by his brother Sancho in 1071, and imprisoned for the rest of his life by his brother Alfonso in 1073.

GARCIA DE CABRA. Full Name: Count Don Garcia de Cabra. Husband of the Infanta Elvira

GARCIA DE ROA. Full Name: Don Garcia de Roa.

GARCIA OF NAVARRE. Full Name: King Don Garcia of Navarre. Modern Name: Garcia III. - 1 September 1054. King of Navarre from 1035 until killed by his brother Ferrando at the Battle of Atapuerca.

GARCIA ORDONEZ. Enemy of the Cid, historically Lord of Pancorbo and Governor of Najera. He was an important figure at Alfonso’s court, but there is no historical documentation that confirms or excludes the blood feud between him and the Cid

GARCIA RAMIREZ. Full Name: Infante Don Garcia Ramirez. Modern Name: Ramiro Sanchez de Navarre. (1070 to 1116) Prince of Navarre; married the Cid’s daughter Elvira (the historical Christina) in 1098. Their son, Garcia Ramirez, became King of Navarre in 1134.

GARCIA TELLEZ. Full Name: Don Garcia Tellez. Abbot of the Monastery, a right noble monk, and a great hidalgo.

GIRALTE. A Roman in the service of Abenalfange, commanding a company of French knights.

GODINHOS. Portuguese noble lineage.

GOMES ECHIGUIS. Full Name: Don Gomes Echiguis. A Don from whom the old Sousas of Portugal derived their descent.

GOMEZ. Full Name: Count Don Gomez. Modern Name: Diego Rodriquez, Count of Oviedo. Count and Lord of Gormaz, father of Ximena. Historically he is called Diego Rodriquez, Count of Oviedo, and was married to a Cristina. He was the father of Ximena; two other daughters; and Froila Diaz, Count of Astruias.

GOMEZ FERNANDEZ. Knight who colonized Pampliego.

GONZALO. Full Name: Count Don Gonzalo. Knight of the Infante Don Sancho.

GONZALO ANSURES. Full Name: Don Gonzalo Ansures. Brother of Don Pero Ansures and Don Ferran Ansures.

GONZALO DE SIES. A right valiant Portuguese knight.

GONZALO GONZALEZ. Full Name: Count Don Gonzalo Gonzalez. Modern Name: Gonzalo Assurez. Also Count Don Gonzalo Gomez. Father of the Infantes of Carrion, a hidalgo of the kingdom of Castille.

GONZALO MONIZ. A knight married to a daughter of King Bermudo.

GONZALO MUNOZ. A knight of Orbaneja.

GONZALO SALVADORES. Full Name: Count Don Gonzalo Salvadores. Modern Name: Count Don Gonzalo Salvadorez of Lara. A knight of King Ferrando.

GUILLEN BERNALTO. Kinsman of Count Ramon Berenguer.

GUIRABENT. The brother of Giralte the Roman, commander of French troops in the service of the Moors.

HENRY. Holy Roman Emperor, 1017 - 5 October 1056. A staunch supporter of the Catholic Church, his reign marked the apogee of Germany dominance of medieval Europe.

HIERONYMO. Full Name: Bishop Don Hieronymo. Modern Name: Jerome de Perigord. The bishop's initial mission on arrival in Spain in 1096 was to oversee the Cluniac reform of Benedictine monasteries. He was named bishop of Valencia in 1098, four years after the Cid had seized it.

HUGO. Full Name: Don Hugo. Kinsmen of Guillen Bernalto.

INFANTA DONA ELVIRA. Daughter of King Don Ferrando. Her siblings were Dona Urraca, Don Sancho, Dona Elvira, Don Alfonso, and Don Garcia.

INFANTE DON SANCHO. Full Name: Pedro Pedrez of Aragon. Son of Pedro of Aragon and Ines of Aquitaine, married in 1086. He was betrothed briefly to the Cid's daughter, Sol (Maria). However Pedro Pedrez would predecease his father in 1104 and leave no children.

INFANTES OF ARAGON AND NAVARRE. The Princes of Aragon and Navarre were wedded to the daughters of the Cid after the annulment of their marriages to the Princes of Carrion.

INFANTES OF CARRION. Diego and Fernando Gonzalez were nephews to the Counts of Carrion through marriage. There was no historical basis for their being called Infantes or Princes, and no historical record of their betrothal or marriage to the daughters of the Cid.

JAYME. Full Name: King Don Jayme of Aragon the Conqueror. Valencia remained in the power of the Moors till it was won by King Don Jayme of Aragon, he who is called the Conqueror, which was a hundred and seventy years after the death of the Cid.

JUAN. Full Name: Don Juan. Third archbishop of Toledo.

KING ORDONO. Full Name: King Don Ordono II of Leon. (873 - 3 January 924) He executed the counts of Castile in 920 after blaming them for a loss in battle.

LAINO. A notorious traitor, the father of Adolfo, who slew Don Nuno like a traitor, and the grandfather of Vellido Dolfos, betrayer of Zamora.

LAYN CALVO. Judge who married Nuno’s daughter, Elvira Nunez.

LAZARUS. Full Name: Saint Lazarus. The immortal wandering Jew, condemned to walk the earth until the resurrection of Jesus. He was the leper to whom the Cid did so much good and granted the Cid the power that whatever he desired to do, and began, that would he accomplish.

LEOVEGILDO. Modern Name: Liuvigild. Visigothic King (569-586) who reunified Spain and made his capital in Toledo. As part of this effort, in 584 he overthrew the Germanic Suevi who had occupied Galicia.

LESMES. A holy man, a monk of St. Benedict’s.

LOPE SANCHEZ. Brother of Fortun Sanchez, the son-in-law of King Don Garcia of Navarre.

MALANDA. A learned man.

MARTIN ANTOLINEZ. Prodigious Burgalese knight, third in favor to the Cid after Alvar Fanez and Pero Munez. Cid’s head steward and a great warrior.

MARTIN FERRANDEZ. A knight, a native of Burgos.

MARTIN GARCIA. Knight.

MARTIN GONZALEZ. Full Name: Don Martin Gonzalez. Champion of the King of Aragon, held to be the best knight in all Spain.

MARTIN MUNOZ. Governor of Montemayor (Montemor-o-Velho) and Count of Coimbra 1091-1094.

MARTIN PELAEZ. A knight, a native of Santillana in Asturias, a hidalgo, great of body and strong of limb, a well made man and of goodly semblance, but withal a right coward at heart, which he had shown in many places when he was among feats of arms.

MARTIN SALVADOREZ. Knight.

MASTER ROBERTO. Cardinal of Santa Sabine in Rome.

MONINHO HERMIGIS. Full Name: Don Moninho Hermigis. Don of Portugal.

MUDARRA. Legendary half-Christian half-Muslim avenging hero of the eighth century epic, the Seven Princes of Lara.

MUNO FERNANDEZ. Lord of Monteforte.

MUNO GUSTIOS. Also Muno Gustioz. Ximena’s brother-in-law, from Linquella. He fought Suero Gonzalez in defense of the honor of the Cid’s daughters. Muno stayed in Ximena’s service after the Cid’s death.

MUNO RAVIA. Knight.

NUNO ALVAREZ. Full Name: Count Don Nuno Alvarez. Knight.

NUNO COLONIZER OF CUBIELLA. Full Name: Count Don Nuno de Cubiella. Otherwise unidentified Don.

NUNO DE LARA. Full Name: Count Don Nuno de Lara. Count who fought in the Portugal campaign.

NUNO RASUERA.

NUNO SLAIN BY ADOLFO. Full Name: Count Don Nuno. Otherwise unidentified Don.

NUNO THE AGED. Full Name: Count Don Nuno de Viejo. Otherwise unidentified Don.

OCHOA PEREZ. A messenger from Navarre. Historically cannot be identified; in the poem, called Ojarra, a word coming from Basque otso, or wolf. Ochoa is another form of this name.

PEDRO ARIAS. Also known as Pedro Arias, a right brave knight, though but of green years.

PEDRO DE PERNEGAS. Full Name: Don Pedro de Pernegas. A good priest of Burgos, who baptized the Cid and was his godfather.

PEDRO FROJAZ. Full Name: Count Don Pedro Frojaz. Brother of Don Rodrigo.

PEDRO OF ARAGON. Modern Name: Pedro I of Aragon and Navarre. 1068 or 1070 to 28 September 1104. King of Aragon and Navarre 1094-1104 . Purported father-in-law of the Cid's daughter.

PERO ANSURES. Full Name: Don Pero Ansures. Arabic Name: Don Peransures. Chief counselor of King Don Alfonso, also known as Don Pero Ansures, a notable and valiant knight, of the old and famous stock of the Ansures, Lords of Monzon, which is nigh unto Palencia.

PERO BERMUDEZ. The Cid’s second most trusted knight, after Alvar Fanez. Nephew and standard bearer of the Cid. His name is listed as a government authority in a historical document, but there is no independent evidence of his service with the Cid.

PERO GONZALVEZ. Knight.

PERO SANCHEZ. Knight who was part of the escort of the daughters of the Cid and who convinced the party to turn around and search for them after their abasement by the Infantes of Carrion.

PHILIP. Full Name: King Philip the Second. Philip II the Hapsburg was King of Spain from 1556 - 1598. However his father, Charles V, was King during the period of Hurtado de Mendoza's ambassadorship to Rome...

POPE VICTOR II. German-born Pope who forced King Fernando to swear allegiance to Henry, the Holy Roman Emperor.

RAMIRO. Full Name: King Don Ramiro. Modern Name: King Ramiro I of Aragon. King of Aragon 1035-1063. Illegitimate son of King Sancho el Mayor. Brother of Kings Ferrando of Castille, Gonzalo of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza, and Garcia of Navarre. Died fighting the Moors at the Battle of Graus.

RAMON BERENGUER. Full Name: Count Don Ramon Berenguer. Modern Name: Berenguer Ramon II the Fratricide. Count of Barcelona, taken prisoner by the Cid on two occasions, in 1082 and 1090.

RAMON DE BAJARAN. Knight.

REMON. Full Name: Count Remon. Lord of Savoy, entrusted with the power of the King of France.

REMOND. Full Name: Count Don Remond. Modern Name: Raymond, Count of Amous in Burgundy. Anrrich’s cousin and rival. Fourth son of William I Tetehardie. In 1087 he married Alfonso’s legitimate daughter Urraca, and was governor of Galicia. His son became Alfonso VII, Emperor of Spain 1125-1157.

RICARTE GUILLEN. Noted soldier in the French Army.

ROBERT SOUTHEY. Robert Southey (1774 - 1843) was a literary scholar and an English poet of the Romantic school, a contemporary of William Wordsworth.

RODRIGO ALVAREZ. Full Name: Don Rodrigo Alvarez. Count and Governor of Asturias, father of Dona Teresa Rodriguez, mother of the Cid.

RODRIGO ARIAS. Son of Don Arias Gonzalo, a good knight, right hardy and valiant, the elder of all the brethren; he had been in many a tournament, and with good fortune.

RODRIGO FROJAZ. Full Name: Don Rodrigo Frojaz. Count, brother of Don Pedro Frojaz.

RUY XIMENEZ. A knight of Asturias.

SANCHA. Full Name: Dona Sancha. Queen of Castille. Wife of King Ferrando, who bore him the Infanta Dona Urraca; the Infante Don Sancho; the Infanta Dona Elvira; and the Infante Don Alfonso.

SANCHO. Full Name: King Don Sancho. Modern Name: Sancho II. 1037 - 7 October 1072. Eldest son of King Ferrando. King of Castille 1065-1072. He managed to take Galicia and Leon from his brothers Garcia and Alfonso. He was killed while attempting to take Zamora from his sister Urraca.

SANCHO EL MAYOR. Full Name: King Don Sancho el Mayor. Modern Name: Sancho III of Navarre and Castille. King of Navarre and Castille 1004-1035. Father of King Don Ferrando.

SANCHO GARCIA. Full Name: Don Sancho Garcia. Modern Name: Sancho IV of Navarre. 1038-1076. King of Navarre 1054-1076. Son of King Garcia, nephew of King Ferrando. He was assasinated at the instigation of Alfonso. However Navarre managed to stay out of Alfonso's hands when the nobility there made Sancho Ramirez of Aragon their king.

SANCHO RAMIREZ. Full Name: King Sancho Ramirez. Modern Name: Sancho V Ramirez of Aragon and Navarre. Son of Ramiro. King of Aragon 1063-1094 and Navarre 1076-1094. He managed to maintain independence against Alfonso in the west while increasing his dominions through reconquest of Muslim territory to the east and south.

SANTIAGO THE APOSTLE.

SISEBUTO. Full Name: Abbot Don Sisebuto. The Abbot of San Pedro de la Cardena. The original Poem of the Cid gives the name Don Sancho at this line, but there is no historical record of this person, although also nothing that denies his existence.

SISNANDO. Full Name: Don Sisnando. Modern Name: Davidiz Sisnando. Sisnando Davidiz, Count of Coimbra, July 1064 to 1092. Despite the negative description in the chronicle, Sesnando's rule would bring wealth and a fluorescence of mozarabic culture to Coimbra.

SOL. Full Name: Dona Sol. Modern Name: Maria Rodriguez de Vivar. (1080-1105) Daughter of the Cid. In historical records called Maria, she married Ramon Berenguer III the Great, Count of Barcelona, the nephew of the Berenguer of the poem.

SUERO GONZALEZ. Full Name: Count Don Suero Gonzalez. Modern Name: Assur Gonzalez. The Uncle (father’s brother) of the Infantes of Carrion. He had been their Ayo and bred them up, and badly had he trained them, for he was a man of great words, good of tongue, and of nothing else good; and full scornful and orgulous had he made them.

TERESA RODRIGUEZ. Full Name: Dona Teresa Rodriguez. Mother of the Cid, wife of Diego Laynez, daughter of Don Rodrigo Alvarez, Count and Governor of Asturias.

URRACA. Full Name: Dona Urraca. ca 1038 - 1108. Eldest daughter of King Don Ferrando. Her father split his kingdom between his children; Urraca received Zamora. Her machinations would result in war between her brothers and much grief for Christian Spain.

VELLIDO. Full Name: Vellido Dolfos. Knight that murdered King Don Sancho by subterfuge.

VERMUI FROJAZ. Full Name: Don Vermui Frojaz. Portuguese knight, brother of Don Rodrigo and Don Pedro.

VERNA. A favorite of King Don Garcia, to whom the King gave so much authority, that it brought about his downfall.

XIMEN GARCIA DE TIOGELOS. A knight, who was one of the best of Navarre, who lost to the Cid in single combat.

XIMENA GOMEZ. Modern Name: Jimena Diaz de las Asturias. (1055-1113) Wife of the Cid; daughter of Diego Rodriquez, Count of Oviedo (Count Don Gomez of Gormaz in the poem), and a Cristina; sister of Don Fruela, Count of Asturias; youngest of three sisters; and a first cousin of King Alfonso.

YNIGO XIMENEZ. Modern Name: Inigo Jimenez. Messenger from Aragon. Historically Inigo Jimenez was the governor of Meltria, 1106-1107.

YVANEZ CORNEJO. Knight.


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Commentary © Mark Wade, 2006.
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